Royalty, Kings & Queens, Prince's & Princess's 

   

Kings of Funan*

Funan is the earliest kingdom of Cambodia.*Funan is a chinese pronunciation of the Cambodian Phnom (mountain).

Kaundinya Ist. Century AD

Soma (fem.)........................................fl. latter first century with...

Kaundinya I (Hun-t'ien)............................fl. latter first century

It was founded by sage Kaundinya, who married the Nagi princess Soma. This kingdom is referred to in Chinese texts from the third to the seventh century. Sanskrit was the official language of the Funan realm from the third century onwards. It continued till the fifteenth century.

Hun P'an-h'uang....................................fl. 2nd half of second century

Fan Shiman early 3rd Century

King Hun Tean or Korn Danh I Successors Hun Phan Fan :

Hun Phan Fan, the son of Hun Tean became ruler after his father. He expanded his country by fighting with many nearby tribes and letting his son and his relative rule. He died at the beginning of the third century at the age of 90.

Phan Phan, the son of Hun Phan Fan, was interested in the religion of Shiva. So he gave the power of governing to general Fan Che Man, otherwise known as Serey Mara. Fan Che Man expanded Fo Nan to twice its size. He died sometime between 204 and 210 A.D.Fan Chan, nephew of Fan Che Man, got the throne by killing the elder son of Fan Che Man. After 20 years on the throne Fan Chan was killed by a son of Fan Che Man.

Siun or Asachey: This son of Fan Che Man was, in turn, killed by a general named Siun who was seeking revenge. Siun then took over the throne.

Zhantiin (Chandana) c 357

Accession of Korn Danh I

The events of the 4th century were very complicated, some events were not inscribed. The accession of Korn Danh II occured at the end of 4th century.

Korn Danh II:

After Korn Danh II came a king whose reign was very powerful.

Kaundinya-Jayavarman 480-514

Korn Danh Jaya Varaman (480-514). He developed friendly relations with China. After the reign of Korn Danh Jaya Varaman, there was fighting among different groups throughout the Fo Nan kingdom. Because of this Chen La, one of the countries ruled by Fo Nan, revolted.

Rudravarman 514-after 539


    Kings of Zhenia (Chen La)

    The kingdom of Chen La: The words Chen La and Fo Nan are all Chinese words. Chen La (Kampuchea) was located in the southern part of what is now Laos and was under the rule of Fo Nan. The king who reigned over this country was the successor of the hermit (tabas) named Kampu and the celestial diety named Mara. At the time when there was struggle for the throne in Fo Nan, Chen La began a revolt against Fo Nan.       

    Kaundinya Jayavarman...............................487-514

    Rudravarman...............................................514-539

     

    Bhavavarman I (Phavak Varaman) ) century 550-600

    In the second half of sixth century, when Phavak Varaman was on the throne, he began efforts to conquer Fo Nan with his younger brother Chetra Sena. During that time the frontier of the Chen La kingdom included the low land of Mekong river.

    Mahendravarman (Sitrasena) century 600

    Chetra Mahindra Varaman I: When Phavak Varaman passed away with no queen to succeed him, his younger brother Chetra Mahindra Varaman became king and continued the battle against Fo Nan. He took over Kratie and Mongkul Borey; and to protect the eastern border he made friendly relations with Champa, now part of Vietnam. When he passed away, the kingdom of Chen La was very stable.

    Isanavarman I before 615 after 635

    Eysan Varaman: The son of Chetra Mahindra Varaman continued the conquest of Fo Nan by taking over half of the country, the province Kandal, Prey Veng, Takeo and Chanta Bo. He maintained friendly relationships with China and Champa.

    Phavak Varaman II (639-655)

    After Eysan Varaman passed away there was a struggle for the throne because he did not have a child to succeed him. Finally a man named Phavak Varaman II took the throne and controlled and organized the country.

    Jayavarman I  645-681

    Jaya Varaman I:The son of Phavak Varaman succeeded upon Phavak Varaman's death. At the time the capitol of Chen La was in Angkor Borey in the Takeo province. He continued to improve the ambassadorial policies of the king who reigned before him. He believed in Brahma, he obeyed Hari Harak. The country prospered under his reign and he died in 681. Jaya Varaman did not have a son or a daughter. In 681, when he passed away

     A women named Jaya Devi became queen. At this time Chen La was a very large country. From 710 to 715 there was a civil war. Chen La was divided into two parts; one was highland Chen La, and the other was lowland Chen La.

    Nripatindravarman..................................fl. 7th cent.

    Pushkaraksha..........................................

    Sambhuvarman.......................................fl. 8th cent.

    Rajendravarman I..................................fl. late 8th cent.

    Mahipativarman

     


    Kings of Angkor

    Cambodia  is the homeland of the Khmer. Three periods can be discerned in Khmer history: the pre-Angkor period (before 802), the Angkor period (802-1431) and the post-Angkor period (after 1431). During the Angkor period the center of the kingdom was at Angkor  The ancient monuments are from this period.

    Jayavarman II came to the throne in the ninth century. He liberated Cambodia from Javanese vassalage. There is an unbroken line of rulers from. him to modern times. He founded Angkor around the fertile area of the Great Lake of Tonle Sap which is inundated by the Mekong. Angkor flourished for six hundred years. The city was captured in 1431 by the Thais, and a curtain of darkness descended upon Angkor and the entire Cambodian civilization.


    Jayavarman II  802-850

    Jaya Varaman II, also known as Puskarak, was a relative of the king who reigned the Chen La lowland. Puskarak was caught by the Javanese and was sent to Java as a prisoner of war during the invasion of the Javanese. He came back from Java in 800.At first King Jaya Varaman II stayed in Indra Buri and then he went to Hari Hari Ley (in the region of Rolours) and then to Amrindra Borey (in West Baray.) He strengthened his power inside the kingdom and battled against the Cham who had invaded Kampuchea.

    In 802 he was crowned king in a ceremony with flowers. He then announced the independence of Kampuchea. To insure his success as a king and to insure the independence of Kampuchea, he asked that his crowning ceremony be held on the top of Mahindra mountain (Phnom Kolen.) In accordance with Hindu religion he was glorified as a divinity. His goal was to stabalize the throne with this ceremony. He then returned to Hari Hara Ley. Jayavarman II founded the Angkor kingdom in 802. Some temples on Mount Kulen are attributed to his reign. He was succeeded by his son Jayavarman III.

    Sdok Kak Thom Inscriptions: It was Jayavarman II, who vowed that the Royal Chaplain would be chosen solely from the family of his exalted guru Sivakaivalya. Thanks to the information obtained through the survival of the Sdok Kak Thom stone inscriptions, we know that Jayavarman II led a rather nomadic court life, and that during his approximate fifty years of rule he moved the capital no less than five times. The arguable reasons for his peripatetic rulership were surely in part due to pressures exerted by the rival southern empire of Java.

    Jayavarman III 850-877

    When King Jaya Varaman II died, his son Jaya Varaman III (850-877) obtained the throne. The capital was still in Hari Hara Ley. He tried very hard to protect lowland Kampuchea but the Kampuchean highlands remained out of his control.

    Indravarman I 877-889

    When Jaya Varaman III passed away he did not have any successors. Indra Varaman I, one of his mother's relatives took the throne. Indra Varaman was very brave, diligent, honorable and was an artist. He inherited the kingdom of Sampha Bura and the Mekong lowlands (Chen La lowlands.) These were added to the territory of Kampuchea (formerly the territory of Jaya Varaman II). The unification of the Khmer people was nearly achieved, only Phavak Bura (Chen La highlands) was left. He founded Preah Ko (879) and the Bakong (881), both at the village of Roluos. Lolei, also at Roluos, was consacrated in 893 by Yasovarman I, the son of Indravarman I who succeeded him.

    Yaksovarman I 889-900

    King Yakso Varaman was the son of Indra Varaman. He took the throne after his father died. He was very powerful, knowledged and virtuous. He knew much about the strategy of war. The most important thing he did was to build the stone foundation of the Angkor Wat. Hari Hara Ley was the capital but it was not well organized so he built and moved the capital to Yaso Tha Bura on Bakheng mountain. In memory of past kings he also built the castle of Lo Ley on top of Phnom Krom. He also built a castle on top of Phnom Bok in honor of Brahma beliefs. He led an expedition to escavate the reservoir of East Baray. It was 7 km long and 1,800 km wide. He constructed a road from Yaksotha Bura to Baray in Hari Hara Ley.

    Yasovarman ascended the throne in AD 889. He was a highly educated monarch with liberal religious views. Though a devout follower of Sivism, he lavishly patronized Vishnuist and Mahayanic and Hinayanic Buddha cults as well. Yasovarman is said to have founded one hundred ashrams around the empire, where ascetics engaged in piety and studies were supplied with their daily necessities. Other things granted to these institutions were "pearls, gold, silver, cows, horses, buffaloes, elephants, men, women, and gardens". During his reign there were wars with Champa which he won. When he died the frontier of the kingdom had been expanded from the south part of Laos to the golf of Siam and from the beach of Cosin Sin to Burma. He died in the year 900 after being on the throne for 11 years.

    Harshavarman I c 900-922

    Hase Varaman I  After Yakso Varaman I died his son Hase Varaman I continued to rule. In 921 his uncle, who opposed him, announced himself as King Jaya Varaman IV and created a new capital in Kos Ker. In 922 Hase Varaman died and his younger brother Eysan Varaman II took the throne in Angkor.

    Harsavarman I, son and successor of Yasovarman I, built Baksei Chamkrong (beginning of the tenth century). When he died his son Hase varaman II became king.

    Isanavarman II 922-928

    Prasat Kravan was built during the reign of his brother Isanavarman II, in c. 925.

    Jayavarman IV 921 or 928-941

    Jayavarman IV, uncle of the two previous kings, was the next king. His capital was in Koh Ker. He was succeeded by his son Harsavarman II.

    Harshavarman II  941-944

    When Hase Varaman II died Rachindra Varaman II, a relative of Jaya Varaman IV, became king.

    Rajendravarman II  944-968

    In 944, a ruler of a principality, seized supreme power and established himself as king Rajendravarman in Angkor. His state temple was Pre Rup. During his reign also the beautiful temple Banteay Srei was built. Successive kings were Jayavarman V and Udayadityavarman IHe had inherited the Chen La highlands and was successful in unifying it with the rest of the kingdom. He remainded in Yasotha Bura. In 945 there was war with the Cham people who had invaded Kampuchea. During his reign Rachindra Varaman II built the East Mebun, Pre Roub, Phimean Akas and Bat Chum castles. Under Rachindra Varaman II's reign, Yajnavaraha (Brahman) built the Bantey Srey castle in 967.

    Jayavarman V 968-1001

    Jaya Varaman V was the son of Rachindra Varaman II. He succeeded Rachindra Varaman II and built Takeo castle.

    Udayadityavarman I 1001-1002

    Outa Yatitya Varaman: When Jaya Varaman V died in the year 1001, one of his relatives named Outa Yatitya Varaman took the throne. A few months later he disappeared, no one known whether he had abdicated or died. After that there was a civil war; the country at that point had been divided into many parts by many kings. Each king believed that the country belonged to them.

    Jayaviravarman (usurper) 1002-1011

    Two kings, Jayaviravarman and Suryavarman I, made claims to the supreme throne.In 1002 Jaya Vara Varaman took the throne from Outa Yatitya Varaman in Yaksotha Bura. During that time one other king announced from Korat that his mother was a relative of Indra Varaman; he therefore declared that he was the king of Kampuchea and called himself Sorya Varaman I. Sorya Varaman I fought with Jaya Vara Varaman and took over Yaksotha Bura in 1006. This civil war continued for 4 years. After his victory he fought with anyone who wanted to take over his throne or was disliked with his reign. Sorya Varaman was successful in 1010. He became the only king of the kingdom of Kampuchea.

    Suryavarman I 1002-1050

    After nine years of war Suryavarman I appeared more powerful. He reigned until 1049. During his long reign he established a large number of temples, among which Phimeanakas Udayadityavarman II succeeded Suryavarman II in 1050.

    Udayadityavarman II  1050-1066

    King Outa Yatitya Varaman II : King Outa Yatitya Varaman II was the well educated son of Sorya Varaman I. He ruled from the time he was a teenager. Under his reign there were three revolts, one in 1051 and two more in 1055. All three revolts were defeated by a commander of the armed forces named Sang Krearm. In spite of the fact that there was trouble internally, the frontier continued to be expanded. Under his reign the western frontier was expanded farther than ever before.

    He finished Bapourn castle which had been started by his father. Then he built Mebun castle in the middle of West Baray, and excavated the West Baray reservoir. West Baray was 8 km long and 2.2 km wide. After his death in about 1066 his brother, Harsavarman III, ascended the throne.

    Harshavarman III  1066-1080

    King Hase Varaman III: When Outa Yatitya Varaman II died the throne was inherited by his younger brother named Hase Varaman III because Outa Yatitya Varaman did not have any children.Under his reign the kingdom became prosperous. Four distinct classes were organized. There were priests, royalty, merchants and laborers. One of his achievements was the restoration of all the monuments that were broken during his reign and the reign of both previous kings.

    Hase Varaman III loved peace, but he declared two wars: one was against the Cham and the other was against Tong Kung. In the year 1074 the Cham invaded across the border into the city of Sampha Bura. There they destroyed the city's holy sanctuary and took the Khmer people as prisoners of war. The Khmer forces were not able to get any victories, but in 1080 peace was finally made between the two countries.

    In 1076 Kampuchea was persuaded by the Chinese to make war against Tong Kung. The Khmer soldiers withdrew when the Chinese soldiers were defeated. In 1080 while Hesa Varaman II was on the throne, a nobleman from the northern region of Kampuchea, Mahetha Bura city (Se Moon river) declared himself king, and called himself Jaya Varaman VI.

    Jayavarman VI  1080-1107

    Nrib Tindra Varaman (1080-1113) and Jaya Varaman IV: In 1080 a nobleman in Mahetha Bura proclaimed himself king of Kampuchea with the title of Jaya Varaman VI. At the same time King Hase Varaman III left the throne and Nrib Tindra Varaman took over the throne in Angkor. The king Jaya Varaman VI moved his forces and fought with Nrib Tindra Varaman. Until his death in 1107, he controlled the northern and eastern region. The rest of the country, such as the region of Angkor remained loyal to Nrib Tindra Varaman. Jaya Varaman VI built Bung Mala castle, and castles in Preah Vihea, Phimay and Wat Ko. Jayavarman VI,  died in about 1107.

    Dharanindravarman I  1107-1113

    When Jaya Varaman VI died his older brother took over the throne and called himself Thar Nindra Varaman I. Thar Nindra Varaman competed for the throne against Nrib Tindra Varaman and against his grandson, who later became Soryak Varaman II.

    The war between Soryak Varaman II and Thar Nindra Varaman was very intense. Finally in 1113 Soryak Varaman II killed Thar Nindra Varaman and took over the throne. After that he fought and killed Nrib Tindra Varaman. Under his rule Kampuchea became unified.

    Suryavarman II  1113-c 1150

    Soryak Varaman II was a great fighter. He was at war with the Cham, the Vietnamese, the Siamese (Thai) and the Morn. When he died the northern frontier of the kingdom had reached China, the southern frontier had extended to the ocean, the western frontier was extended as far as Burma and the eastern frontier extended into Champa.

    Dharanindravarman II c 1150-before 1160

    Yasovarman II  before 1160-1165

    From 1150 to 1165 Yasovarman II was the supreme king. He probably restored some of the temples of the Roluos group. An usurpator, who installed himself on the throne as Tribhuvanadityavarman, made and end to his reign.

    Tribhuvanadityavarman 1165-1177

    He himself was killed by a Cham king, who was in his turn overpowered by Jayavarman VII.

    Cham invasion and period of anarchy 1177-1181

    Jayavarman VII 1181-c 1220

    Only four years after the Cham agression, in 1181, Jayavarman VII was consecrated supreme king. Jayavarman VII died in about 1220.

    Indravarman II c 1220-c 1243

    Jayavarman VIII c 1243-1295 (abdicated)

    Indravarman III 1296-1308

    The thirteenth century saw the gradual decline of the greatly expanded Khmer Realm. Overseas, this coincided with the Mogul invasions of India and the severance of vital ties. Regionally, the fall of Khmer Civilization showed commensurate relation to the rise of Siamese rulers beyond Cambodia's western frontier. It was also at this time that the Siamese rulers gave a new definition to their ethnic appellation "Thai", which was then said to mean "free", precisely to emphasis their recent liberation from the yoke of Cambodia.

    Indrajayavarman 1308-1327

    jayavarmandiparameshvara 1327-c 1353

    In 1431 the Khmer kings moved their capital from Angkor to the region of Phnom Penh because of pressure from the Thais. This date marks the end of the Angkor period. Phnom Penh, then called Chadomuk. With the advent of the new dynasty in the 15th century, the construction of temples and writing of Sanskrit inscriptions ceased, as the elite had been wiped out. When King Ponhea Yat founded the capital at Phnom Penh he gave it the imposing title: Krong chadomukh mongkol sokkala kampucheathipdei sereisothor parava intaputta borei rattharachasema mohanokor

              Nippean Bat........................................................1362-1369

     To Thailand..........................................................1369-1375

     Kalamegha (in Basan).......................................1371- ?

     Kambujadhitaja (regained Angkor).................fl. 14th cent.

      Dharmasokaraja................................................fl. 14th cent.

    To Thailand............................................................ ? -1389

     Ponthea Yat.........................................................1389-1404

     Narayana Ramadhipati......................................1404-1429

    Sri Bodhya..............................................................1429-1444

     Dharmara Jadhiraja..........................................1444-1486

     Sri Sukonthor.....................................................1486-1512

      Ney Kan..............................................................1512-1516

     Ang Chan I..........................................................1516-1566

     Barom Reachea I...............................................1566-1576

    Chettha I...............................................................1576-1594

    Reamea Chung Prey.........................................1594-1596

    Barom Reachea II..............................................1596-1599

    Barom Reachea III............................................1599-1600

     Chau Ponhea Nhom........................................1600-1603

     Barom Reachea IV..........................................1603-1618

    Chettha II...........................................................1618-1622

     interregnum...........,........................................1622-1628

     Ponhea To.......................................................1628

     Outey................................................................1628-1642 with...

     Ponhea Nu......................................................1630-1640

    Ang Non I.........................................................1640-1642

    Chan..................................................................1642-1659

    Barom Reachea V.........................................1659-1672

    Chettha III.......................................................1672-1673

    Ang Chei........................................................1673-1674

      Ang Non......................................................1674-1675

    Chettha IV.....................................................1675-1795 d.c. 1725

    Outey I...........................................................1695-1699

    Ang Em.........................................................1699-1701 d. 1730

    Chettha IV (restored).................................1701-1702 d.c. 1725

     Thommo Reachea II.................................1702-1703 d. 1747

    Chettha IV (re-restored)...........................1703-1706 d. c. 1725

    Thommo Reachea (restored)..................1706-1710 d. 1747

      Ang Em (restored)....................................1710-1722

     Satha II.........................................................1722-1738

    Thommo Reachea II (re-restored)...........1738-1747

    Thommo Reachea III...................................1747

    Ang Tong.......................................................1747-1749 d. 1758

    Chettha V.......................................................1749-1755

    Ang Tong (restored)....................................1755-1758

    Outey II...........................................................1758-1775

    Ang Non II......................................................1775-1796

     interregnum..................................................1796-1806

     Ang Chan II...................................................1806-1837

    Ang Mey (female).........................................1837-1841

    Ang Duong...................................................1841-1859

     Norodom.....................................................1859-1904

    Sisovath.......................................................1904-1927

    Sisovath Monivong...................................1927-1941

    Norodom Sihanouk II................................1941-1955 d.

    Norodom Suramarit...................................1955-1960

     interregnum (Norodom Sihanouk, head of state).....1960-1970

    1st Republic (Lon Nol regime).......................1970-1975

     2nd Republic (Pol Pot regime: Nor. Sih. h. of st. 75-6).1975-1979

    3rd Republic (Vietnamese-backed state)............1979-1991

     Interim Government(headed by Norodom Sihanouk)....1991-1993

    Norodom Sihanouk II (restored)....................1993-

     

    TO BE UPDATED...

        

    Copyright 1998 USMTA Inc. All rights reserved. Revised: October 16, 2004.