THE AYUTTHAYA PERIOD
In 1350, the new Thai capital founded at Ayuthaya, named after the ancient city of India, the legendary birthplace of the Hindu god Ram. Thus, more than ever, Cambodian Brahmans were actively sought by the Siamese Court as scientists, astrologers, artists, doctors, advisors and conductors of the sacred rites. Yet the most highly prized and accordingly sought after Gurus and High Brahman tantric priests said to have been those hereditary descendants of Sivakaivalya.
King Ramathibodi I
1369 - 1370 (First ruling class)
King Borommaracha I
1370 - 1388
Saen Muang Ma
King Thong Chan (Thonglan)
(Second ruling class)
1388 - 1395
1395 - 1409
King Borommaracha II
1424 - 1448
1448-1463 (in Ayutthaya)
1463-1488 (in Phitsanulok)
King Borommaracha III (Intharatcha)
regent in Ayutthaya, 1463-1488;
Became king, 1488-1491
King Ramathibodi II
1491 - 1529
King Borommaracha IV
1529 - 1533
King Ratchadathiratkuman (Ratsada)
1534 - 1546
King Kaeofa (Yod Fa)
(Prince Yodfa/Queen Mother Sisdachan)
1546 - 1548
Khun Worawongsa (usurper)
King Mahachakkaphat (Chakkraphat)
1548 - 1569
A request from Burmese King Tabinshwehti for two white elephants from Siamese King Mahachakkaphat caused a debate as to wether the request should be granted, with the majority in favor since the kingdom had seven white elephants among a herd of 300 or so in the royal herd. Others argued, however, that complying with the request would only signify Siamese subservience to Burma and would not be fitting for Siamese dignity, therefore the request was denied. Burmese King Tabinshwehti waged a ferocious campaign against the Ayutthayan kingdom. During single combat with the Prince of Prome King Mahachakrapat was left dangerously exposed to the enemy. Queen Suriyodaya and her daughter rode their elephants between the King and the Burmese where Queen Suriyodaya bravely saved her husband but was cut down by the Burmese soldiers. Her daughter also perished fighting in the battle.
King Mahinthrathirat (Mahin)Mahin)
King Naresuan the Great
1590 - 1605
King Naresuan, born in 1555 who at this time was formerly known as Phra Naret , governor of Siams northern province of Phitsanulok and son of king Maha Dhammaraja. After the fall of Ayutthaya Thousands of Siamese were taken captive to Burma who dominated Siam for 15 years making Siamese king Maha Dhammaraja his vassal. According to King Bayinnaung Prince Naresuan was bold, dynamic, and brilliant as a boy. King Bayinnaung was so impressed by his exceptional qualities that he treated the Prince as his own son and summoned the best tutors to instruct the Prince in the arts of combat. The Prince became one of the greatest military generals in the annals of Burmese history. During a series of revolts by the Mon and Shans Prince Naresuan renounced his allegiance to Burmas King Nanda Bayin who died 1599, son and successor of King Bayinnuang.
Cambodias King Sattha supported King Naresuan and his declaration of independence from Burma. Cambodian troops led by Satthas brother, Prince Srisuphanma were provided for Naresuans attack on Burmas King Bayinnuangs troops who had invaded Chiengmai. Sattha broke ties with Naresaun and launched an invasion of his own into southern Siam, seizing Prachin Buri.
Naresuan forced the Cambodians to retreat and retook Prachim Buri. He vowed to punish Sattha for breaking the alliance. Phra Naret assumed the Siamese throne as King Naresuan upon the death of his father King Maha Dhammaraja. Burmese King Nanda Bayin launched an invasion in a final attempt to crush Naresuan and his independence movement; at the battle of Nong Sa Rai, a large Burmese army led by Crown Prince Minkyizwa engaged Prince Naresuan and his forces which included a Japanese volunteer corp composed of 500 Samurai warriors led by Yamada Nagamasa, in a hand to hand combat between the two Princes, who had known each other since childhood, who rode on war elephants, Burmese Crown Prince Minkyizwa was killed, cut from shoulder to waist by a blow from Naresuan. The Burmese army retreated; Siam had finally been liberated from Burmese rule.
Naresuan sought revenge on Cambodias King Sattha and launched another offensive into Cambodia. A Siamese invasion force of 100000 men moved eastward into Cambodia, at the head of this force King Naresuan pushed on, where two Siamese armies joined forces with him after capturing Siemreab, Bassac (Champassak, Laos ) and other towns in the north. Later, during the Burmese Civil war Naresuan mounted another offensive on Burmese territory against Pegu, occupying the city until Burmese rebels regrouped and defeated the Siamese forces Naresuan who during a siege climbed down a Burmese stockade with his word in his mouth. Halfway down on the Burmese side of the barrier, he was stabbed and fell to the ground, using his sword to cut his way out of the stockade. Later Naresuan died of his wounds.
1605 - 1610
King Songtham Song Tham (Intharatcha)
1610 - 1628
King Chetthatirat (Chettha)Chettha)
1628 - 1629
King Prasatthong (Prasat Thong)
1630 - 1656
King Chaofa Chai
1655 - 1656