Included in this listing is a forward of previous ruling houses from the region, before the establishment of the dynastic Tai periods:
of Very Early Kings
Around 200 B.C. - Forces of the Chinese Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - 220 A.D.)
invade Yunnan in order to have an unrestricted land communication with
India. In 221-210 B.C. - The Qin Dynasty of China (221-207 B.C.), in its drive to establish a single rule over all Chinese societies, invades and subdues
some Thai principalities or kingdoms located in what are now Sichuan and Yunnan areas, like those of the Pa and the Ngio. These kingdoms are
annexed placing a part of those groups considered ancestors of present-day Thais under central Chinese rule.
Kings of Lung Unknown to date..
Kings of Pa
Unknown to date..
Kings of Gnio
Unknown to date..
Kings of Ai-Lao
122 B.C. - The small Kingdom of Ai-lao is formed by Tai inhabitants
in Yunnan and Tai migrants from territories earlier settled by Tai's but then conquered by Chinese armies. Already at this stage, a tendency is to move southwards to evade Chinese pressure. However, the Tai's at that early time did not flee from Chinese rule as a complete group or as an
expelled nation. Parts of the Tai populations remained in Chinese-ruled
areas, intermarried with Chinese, assimilated and finally became Chinese.
100 B.C. - Armed conflict between China and Aliao Kingdom breaks out when the latter denies passage to the emissary of Emperor Wu Ti of China; the emissary is on his way to India to inquire about the teachings of Buddha. In 87 B.C. - The Aliao Kingdom disappears as it is subdued by the Chinese.
9 - The Aliao Kingdom resurrects, rising again against Chinese rule.
50 - The Aliao Kingdom falls again to Chinese supremacy. However, the
kingdom remains widely independent as a Chinese vassal until 225.
69 - Together with 77 minor Thai chiefs and 51,890 families of 553,711
persons (exact Chinese records), a Thai Prince named Miulao submits to the Chinese Emperor Ming Ti of the Han Dynasty. This is the first time a Thai prince officially becomes a dependent of a Chinese dynasty. In the same year, the Chinese Emperor sends a delegation to India to secure a copy of the Sacred Books of Buddha.
78 - Another Thai group, led by a Prince with the name Leilao, rebels
against the Chinese. The group is subdued. Fearing Chinese revenge, many Thais again move south to seek new homes in the region just north of what are present-day Thailand's northern boundaries.
225 - During the Era of Three Kingdoms in China (220-589), southern
Chinese troops attack Thai settled areas, defeated the Thais in battle and
submit them to the rule of the King of Sichuan.
In 650 - Thais in their former areas of settlement, today's Chinese Yunnan and southern Sichuan provinces, rebel against the Chinese and succeed in winning back their sovereignty.
Kings of Nanchao
King Se-Luan of Nong-Seh
SI NU LO, alias TUH LO, son of SHE LUNG, alias LUNG KA-TUH (a King Khun Luang (Hsi-nu-lo)
peculiarity in NANCHAO personal names is that usually the son taken a
syllable of his father's name), was thus the founder of the NANCHAO
Nanchao, first ruled by King Sinulo. Instead of trying to subdue this new
kingdom through military force, the Chinese Emperor Kao Tsung of the Tang Dynasty (618-907) rather accepts its existence and binds it to China
through a treaty of friendship. For several centuries, Nanchao will, for
most of the time, remain an ally of China and in the course of history
become more and more Chinese in its character.
In 674 King Sinulo of Nanchao dies and is succeeded by his son Loshengyen. (Lo Sheng-Yen-ko)
Lo Sheng-Yen-ko (674-712)
In 712 King Loshengyen of Nanchao dies and his son,
Shenglope, (Sheng-lo-p'i) succeeds on the throne of the Sinulo
In 728 King
Shenglope, dies and is succeeded by Pilaoko.
Pilaoko (728- 750)
Pilaoko becomes the next King of
Nanchao. In 733 - As the Tibetan expansion threatens the Chinese at the southwest
frontiers, the Chinese Emperor Ming Li of the Tang Dynasty enters into alliances with local Thai and other principalities at the southern and southwestern border of the Chinese empire. Among the kingdoms with which the Chinese form such an alliance is
In 735 - King Pilaoko unites his kingdom with China, formally accepting Chinese
overrule, and in 738 Pilaoko
is recognized by the Chinese court as Prince of Yunnan.
745 - Chinese Emperor Ming Li commissions Prince Pilaoko to repel all danger at the Chinese southwest border. This gives Pilaoko an excuse to launch a war of conquest against Tibet and to seize a number of Tibetan settlements. In 750 - Pilaoko dies and his son, Kolofeng, succeeds him on the throne.
Khun Luang Fa (Ko-lo-feng) (750-778)
Kolofeng makes Talifu in present-day Yunnan the capital of his kingdom.
When he visits China, he is insulted by the Governor of Hunan. Thus
provoked, he invades China and captures 32 towns and villages. In the
same year, Kolofeng enters an alliance with the King of Tibet against whom his father Pilaoko had waged war.
Between 752-754 - China invades Nanchao with four armies but fails to subdue the rebellious vassal kingdom. In 764, by this time Nanchao's administration is well organized and fully established. The Kingdom becomes a power to be considered in southeast Asia and south China. In 779 - Kolofeng dies and his grandson, Imoshun, succeeds.
Imoshun tries to invade China, then ruled by Emperor Tai Tsong of the Tang Dynasty, but fails.
In 787 - Upon advice of his Chinese tutor Cheing Chui, Imoshun makes a
petition to Emperor Tai Tsong of China complaining about his kingdom's
"involuntary" alliance with Tibet and the latter's abuses of the Thais.
Nanchao and China become allies again. The Chinese court formally
recognizes Imoshun as the King of Nanchao. In 794 - Imoshun invades Tibet and seizes 16 towns, but in the year 808 - Imoshun dies.
Chuan-lung-sheng (808 - 829)
829 - Imoshun's successor (Chuan Lung Sheng) changes alliances again and invades China, capturing the provinces of Suichu, Yongchu and Kongchu. On his retreat, he takes many captives skilled in arts, literature and weaving. These captives very much contribute to the cultural development of Nanchao.
Tsui Ling (859 - 877)
859 - Tsuiling becomes king of Nanchao and assumes the title of Emperor
which offends Chinese Emperor Suen Tong. Because of this, new enmity
develops between Nanchao and China. Nanchao invades China and besieges Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan. Nanchao armies also moves in a southeastern direction, trying to invade Tongking, today a Vietnamese area that was Chinese ruled at the time of Tsuiling's expedition.
860 - Emperor Ytsong ascends the throne of China. Nanchao becomes totally independent of China. In 863 Tsuiling conquers part of Annam (a predecessor of present-day Vietnam). In 866 - Annam is retaken from Tsuiling force by Chinese General Kaopien.
In 870 - Nanchao King Tsuiling invades China and besieges Chengdu again but fails to take the city. 875 - Another unsuccessful attempt to invade Chengdu is undertaken in 875.
King Taiking (fa) (877 - 902)
877 - King Taiking, also called Fa by the Chinese, ascends the throne of
Nanchao and makes peace with China. In 902 - The Sinulo Dynasty ends in Nanchao.
1254 - Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongols in central China, conquers
Nanchao. Waves of Thai migrants move south, especially into the then
already existing Thai state Sukhothai, considerably enhancing Sukhothai's population and power base.
TO BE UPDATED...